A Short Grammar of Biblical Aramaic by Alger F. Johns

By Alger F. Johns

This average grammar booklet of biblical Aramaic, utilized by scholars at many seminaries and universities, is the one one to incorporate graded workouts on the shut of every of its twenty classes.

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In each case the n which precedes the n seems t o be an analogical extension of the initial consonant of the causative system, —a phenomenon occurring also in other Semitic languages. This n can be replaced by an K [cf Haphel and Aphel]; thus occurs the Ithpeel for Hithpeel, etc. It is important t o note that these "reflexive" conjugations may often have a true passive meaning, as well as their expected reflexive meaning. 3na anariB^ N o t e t h a t in the imperfect the prefixed n is completely elided, just as in the Aphel, rather than being retained as in the Haphel.

They answered [peal perfect] and said" (Dan. 6:14[13]). 7. Uses of the Passive Participle: In B A t h e passive participle is frequently used as a predicate adjective (sometimes as an adjective of quality). Occasionally it may be used t o express the active participle: N"iir is properly translated "dwelling" or "dwells" ( D a n . 2:22). The passive participle also may be used with the perfect of nin to express the pluperfect: n n Nin-n "which had been built" (Ezra 5:11). 8. Active Verb Forms With Passive Meanings: In BA a passive may be expressed by a sort of impersonal or indefinite subject with an active verb form.

Perfect: (plural) lB»-nx 7. Verbs Pe Yodh and Lamedh Laryngeal: Most of the irregularities which occur in both the Pe Yodh class and in the Lamedh Laryngeal class occur in this class of doubly weak verbs. This is true in spite of the fact that this class is limited in BA t o the root v i - in the Peal and Haphel conjugations. (A) Peal: the perfect is quite regular, and the infinitive does not occur. ) r T ; (plural) p s T j (passive) v - T [note the p a t h a h furtive] (B) Haphel: t h e occurrences in t h e Haphel show that was an original Pe Waw verb, and all t h e forms are only irregular in accordance with the normal pattern for a Pe Waw Haphel, and also in those places where having a Lamedh Laryngeal affects t h e vocalization.

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