African Anarchism: The History of a Movement by Sam Mbah, I. E. Igariwey

By Sam Mbah, I. E. Igariwey

The 1st ebook at the subject. Covers anarchistic components in conventional African societies, African communalism, “African socialism,” and the after-effects of colonialism.

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Extra resources for African Anarchism: The History of a Movement

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We argue that the debate on the links between liberalization and industrial development is, importantly, a conceptual one, and not merely a question of variously interpreting empirical evidence within a given and unchanging theoretical framework. The neoliberal approach is based on certain assumptions that are brought, often implicitly and without question, to the policy debate. 1 These assumptions are the ones underlying the standard neoclassical conception of economic processes and behaviour, a conception that has undergone considerable modification in the past two decades (not least due to the theoretical efforts of many neoclassical economists dissatisfied with textbook theory).

As Helleiner (1995, p. 4) writes in a recent study of trade policy and industrialisation, 'there is now widespread agreement that the strongest case for liberalised and neutral policies rests less on economic theory than on political economy grounds'. Some neoliberal theorists argue that the details of empirical or theoretical analysis do not ultimately count; what counts is a commitment to freedom or, as La! and Rajapatirana phrase it, 'making a stand for markets versus mandarins'. They write that 'if we accept the need for restraints on the natural and often irrational dirigisme of mandarins in most developing countries, then the adoption of a liberal trade regime (irrespective of the ensuing gains from trade, static or dynamic) becomes an important means to this end' (La!

It does not address the question where these endowments come from in the first place. This is particularly problematic in the case of endowments that are not natural resources: are skills and knowledge really 'endowments' in any meaningful sense? In other words, the canonical model of international trade has little to say about the different initial conditions from which growth and industrialization started in different countries. The assumptions of the Heckscher-Ohlin model make it easy to conclude that free trade is optimal, and that, for countries with trade interventions, optimal resource allocation can be restored only by a rapid and across-the-board move to free trade.

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