By Ronald W Kipp
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The inner ear has sensors that provide information at the movement of the head. Located in the ear are three fluidfilled half circles called semicircular canals. These canals are oriented in the three major body planes (frontal, sagittal, horizontal). As each semicircular canal relays information concerning its specific orientation, the brain receives three-dimensional information about where the head is in space. With this information, the body can maintain balance or adjust to regain balance.
Though nicks and gouges are detrimental to skis and make skiing more difficult, ski bases should not be perfectly smooth. Up close you should be able to see a structure in the base—the small scores that are etched into the base. These small rills abrade the snow as the ski travels over the crystals, resulting in friction. This friction melts the snow, and the resultant water creates a hydroplane effect that makes the ski slide easily. If the ski base were perfectly smooth, there would be surface tension between the snow, or more specifically the water, and the ski base.
As you gain endurance from training, this percentage can be raised or time spent performing the exercise can be increased. Do not try to increase both at the same time. The following sections will discuss measuring your heart rate and determining training zones. How to Determine Your Maximum Heart Rate Maximum heart rate is not an exercise value or even a goal; rather, it is a ceiling for calculating exercise intensity. The simplest rule of thumb is to subtract your age in years from 220. For example, a 40-year-old would have an estimated maximum heart rate at 180 (220 – 40 = 180).