An Ecological and Societal Approach to Biological Control by Jørgen Eilenberg (auth.), J. EILENBERG, H.M.T. HOKKANEN

By Jørgen Eilenberg (auth.), J. EILENBERG, H.M.T. HOKKANEN (eds.)

Biological keep an eye on is without doubt one of the so much promising equipment for regulate of pests (including vectors), ailments and weeds. during this ebook ecological and societal facets are for the 1st time handled jointly. In an ecological method the purpose is to guage the importance of yes organic houses like biodiversity and usual habitats. additionally, it is very important see organic keep watch over from an natural (or ecological) farming perspective. In a societal strategy phrases like ‘consumer’s attitude’, ‘risk perception’, ‘learning and schooling’ and ‘value triangle’ are known as major for organic creation and human welfare.

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Some interesting results were achieved by classical biocontrol. In the 1930s, the parasitic wasp Aphelinus mali (Haldeman) was introduced to control the woolly apple aphid on the aerial part of the tree. Due to climatic factors, A. mali has never continuously controlled the aphid. However, new studies indicate that Canadian strains might be more efficient under European weather conditions (Mols & Boers, 2001). Similarly, the antagonist of the San José scale, Prospaltella perniciousi (Tower), was introduced to Europe.

News Inform. 23: 101N-108N. G. & Coombs, J. (1994): Development in the market for biopesticides. Proceedings of the Brighton Crop Protection Conference – Pest and Diseases, 1049-1054. Lubulwa, G. and McMeniman, S. 1998. ACIAR-supported biological control projects in the South Pacific (1983-1996): an economic assessment. Biocont. News Inform. 19: 91N-97N. Mumford, J. D. and Norton, G. A. 1984. Economics of decision making in pest management. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 29, 157-174. Neuenschwander, P. and Markham, R.

It may thus vary from one region to another, and also over time. For example, granulosis viruses have been used in Switzerland for many years (see below) without raising any public concern, while the spraying of any viruses whatsoever would meet presently great opposition in the UK (and is therefore not practised). On the other hand, the release of the Japanese ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) has met opposition in Switzerland, because it was suspected to attack the native fauna (see below).

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