Ancient Ghana and Mali by Nehemia Levtzion

By Nehemia Levtzion

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The case of Hans Paludan Smith Schreuder Hans P. S. Schreuder was born into a family of state officers. 8 Many of his forefathers had served as pastors in the official Evangelical-Lutheran Church of the pre-1814 regime of Danish supremacy. The young Schreuder decided to take up theological studies at the university in the Norwegian capital Christiania (renamed Oslo in 1925). In 1841 he passed his theological exams with excellent results. 9 Moreover, in the pamphlet he reminded fellow Christians of their duty to bring the Christian religion to ‘pagan’ regions of the world.

It discusses the relation between male missionaries’ professional and public life as employees in the NMS and their domestic and private lives as sons, husbands, fathers, brothers, friends and civil citizens. Methodologically, a biographical study of three male missionaries is carried out to highlight three different generations – namely, a father, a son and a grandson. Karl Larsen Titlestad (1832–1924), Lars Martin Titlestad (1867–1941) and Karl Michael Titlestad (1898–1930) all served as NMS missionaries in South Africa.

In subsequent years it emerged that the popular and fast-growing NMS was far more capable than the committee in Christiania of supporting Schreuder’s mission financially. Schreuder’s original supporting committee eventually resigned in 1846. 12 He finds that clerics were strongly represented in the Home Board and dominated the discussions at regional and national mission conferences. He suggests that the alliance between groups of men representing the upper-class high-church clergy and the middle-class lay movement in the cause of mission was a success.

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