By F Haverfield
Historical Town-Planning by means of F. Haverfield - The artwork of Laying Out cities. Town-planning—the artwork of laying out cities with due take care of the health and wellbeing and luxury of population, for commercial and advertisement potency, and for affordable fantastic thing about buildings—is an paintings of intermittent job. It belongs to big a long time and conditions. For its complete unfolding stipulations are wanted. The age has to be one during which, no matter if via development, or via events of inhabitants, cities are being freely based or freely enlarged, and virtually as a question after all cognizance is attracted to equipment of arranging and laying out such cities. And secondly, the developers of those cities should have wit sufficient to deal with the health of universal males and the due association of normal dwellings. That has now not continually occurred. in lots of lands and centuries—in a while the place civilization has been tinged by way of an under-current of barbarism—one or either one of those stipulations were absent. In Asia in the course of a lot of its background, in early Greece, in Europe in the course of the first 1/2 the center a long time, cities have consisted of 1 or dominant structures, temple or church or citadel, of 1 or processional avenues for worshippers at sacred gala's, and a bit adjoining chaos of tortuous lanes and squalid homes. Architects have devised attractive structures in such cities. yet they've got now not touched the chaos or taken care of the total inhabited region as one unit. Town-planning has been the following unknown.
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But they still kept in the Terremare the lacustrine fashion of their former homes. The nature of these strange villages can best be explained by an account of the best-known and the largest example of them (fig. 11). At Castellazzo di Fontanellato, a little west of Parma, are the vestiges of a settlement which, with its defences, covered an area of about forty-three acres. In outline it was four-sided; its east and west sides were parallel to one another, and the whole resembled a rectangle which had been pulled a trifle askew.
These evidences are scanty and in part uncertain, and their bearing on our problem is not always clear, but they claim a place in an account of Italian town-planning. To them must be added, fourthly, the important evidence which points to the use of a system closely akin to town-planning in early Rome itself. The Terremare (fig. 11). , amidst the so-called Terremare. More than a hundred of these strange settlements have been examined by Pigorini, Chierici, and other competent Italians. Most of them occur in a well-defined district between the Po and the Apennines, with Piacenza at its west end and Bologna at its east end.
The evidence is, indeed, contradictory at every point. If the GraecoMacedonian fashion be quoted as precedent for square or squarish 'insulae', the Terremare show the same. C. at Numantia include many squares. If one part of Pompeii exhibits oblongs, another part is made up of squares. , and founded again a hundred and fifty years later, is laid out in squares, its coeval neighbour Modena prefers the oblong. If the old Greek city of Naples embodies an extreme type of oblong, so does the later Augustan Carthage (pp.