By Edward I. Newman(auth.)
Chapter 1 advent (pages 1–6):
Chapter 2 strength, Carbon stability and worldwide weather switch (pages 7–47):
Chapter three Water (pages 48–78):
Chapter four Soil (pages 79–116):
Chapter five Fish from the ocean (pages 117–144):
Chapter 6 administration of Grazing Lands (pages 145–171):
Chapter 7 administration of Forests (pages 172–204):
Chapter eight Pest keep an eye on (pages 205–244):
Chapter nine toxins (pages 245–280):
Chapter 10 Conservation and administration of untamed Species (pages 281–321):
Chapter eleven recovery of groups (pages 322–344):
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Extra info for Applied Ecology and Environmental Management, Second Edition
Problem: requires large supply of CO,, as well as sophisticatedcontrol of its supply rate. Further information: Ceulemans & Mousseau ( 1994),McLeod &Long (1999). Mousseau 1994); see also note 3 of the table. Species with the C4 photosynthetic mechanism have a different initial CO, capture step, which makes them more efficient at capturing it from low concentrations. They might therefore be expected to benefit less than C3 species from increased CO,. Although there is some tendency towards this, there is a wide range of responses in both groups and much overlap between them (Poorter 1993).
However, extinctions at that time were not all due to climate change: hunting by people was probably also involved (Stuart 1991). These examples show that when we want to predict future responses of species to climate change we can usefully learn from the past, in particular how species responded to the warming at the end of the last Ice Age. 5 summarizes methods that can be used to find out about species in the past and the temperatures at the time. 7(a)shows temperatures in Antarctica over the last 50 000 years, determined by oxygen isotope measurements on ice from layers in a deep ice core.
6. 7. In various plant tissues. 8. In leaves. Curtis & Wang (1998). 7). This happens by the stomata partly closing, and also in some species by a reduction in stomata per mm2. So the concentration of CO, in the photosynthesizing cells is likely to be increased less than the concentration in the air outside. Another outcome is slower transpiration. Because the plant grows faster but uses less water its water use efficiencywill be higher. Another consistent response to increased CO, is lower nitrogen concentration in plant tissues.