By Nancy M. Trautmann
How do we come to a decision what focus of arsenic is suitable in public consuming water? What does it suggest to claim that nutrition D is a hugely poisonous chemical? How do we stability the hazards of spraying insecticides as opposed to the dangers of insect-borne ailments corresponding to West Nile Virus, Lyme ailment, or Malaria? scholars become aware of the solutions to those exciting questions and extra by means of delving into the Cornell clinical Inquiry sequence: Assessing poisonous threat, scholar variation. It comprises 5 chapters of heritage textual content at the uncomplicated ideas of toxicology. additionally incorporated are making plans varieties, presentation directions, and peer overview kinds that advisor scholars via self-designed study initiatives that motivate severe pondering. This built-in procedure permits scholars to find firsthand the common hyperlinks among biology, chemistry, environmental technology, and human well-being.
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Extra info for Assessing Toxic Risk, Teacher Edition
Identify potential sources of variability. Estimate TC50 or LC50 if appropriate to summarize toxicity of the substances tested. Interpret the Results and Formulate Conclusions ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏ Compare actual results to predicted results. Clearly state the meaning of the results in terms of the original research question. Identify possible improvements in the experimental design. Suggest new directions for future research. Present the Project and Engage in Peer Review ❏ ❏ ❏ 38 Effectively communicate the experimental design and results to a peer audience.
That’s what happens when you recharge a water softener using a saturated sodium chloride solution. Because the Na+ concentration in the recharge solution is so great, the sodium cations attach to the resin, causing the heavier calcium and magnesium ions to get released back into solution. 22 N AT I O N AL S C I E N CE T EA C H E R S A S S O C I AT I O N SECTION 2 TABLE 5 Sugges ted Compounds for Dose/Response Exper iments Compound Suggested 100% Concentration for Lettuce Seeds* 12 g/L Relevance to Environmental Issues Used for high way deicing Other Reasons for Use Safety Considerations Safe, inexpensive None 12 g/L Used as “environmentally friendly” alternatives to road salt Safe, inexpensive Slightly toxic by ingestion CuCl2·2H2O 500 mg/L Used in petroleum industry, dyes, metallurgy, pyrotechnics; copper, a heavy metal, is an environmental contaminant Blue solution visually illustrates serial dilution; Cu+2 can be stripped from solution using cation exchange resin Highly toxic by ingestion and inhalation CuSO4 500 mg/L Used for weed control in ponds and lakes Blue solution visually illustrates serial dilution; Cu+2 can be stripped from solution using cation exchange resin Skin and respiratory irritant; moderately toxic by ingestion and inhalation ZnCl2 1,000 mg/L Used in deodorant, disinfecting, and embalming material; toxic pollutant under Clean Water Act Zn+2 can be stripped Severe skin from solution using irritant; cation exchange moderately toxic resin NaF 2,500 mg/L Used in insecticides, pesticides; fluoridation of drinking water to prevent dental caries F- can be stripped from solution using anion exchange resin Highly toxic by ingestion or inhalation; strong skin irritant pH indicator Can be stripped from solution using activated charcoal Body tissue irritant; moderately toxic by ingestion, inhalation, and skin absorption NaCl MgCl2, CaCl2, or KCl Para1,500 mg/L Nitrophenol * For bioassays with Daphnia, duckweed, or other bioassay organisms, different maximum concentrations may be more appropriate—each species has its own range of sensitivity.
The American Biology Teacher 58: 160–161. C. S. Greene. 1997. Experimental investigations of water quality: the bioassay. The American Biology Teacher 59: 349–352. B. M. Storey. 1999. Toxicity testing using Daphnia magna Straus in student assessments of water pollution. Journal of Biological Education 33: 164–170. S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1993. Methods for Measuring the Acute Toxicity of Effluents and Receiving Waters to Freshwater and Marine Organisms, 4th ed. S. Environmental Protection Agency.