By Peter Reese
The conflict of Bannockburn, at which Robert the Bruce's military vanquished Edward I, continues to be essentially the most major and ongoing assets of Scottish delight. This heritage starts off with the army clashes through the preliminary phases of the Wars of Independence. After Bruce's insurrection opposed to Edward I, it follows his chain of army successes which resulted in the siege of the English garrison in Stirling fortress and taken concerning the nice conflict among either international locations at Bannockburn. The ebook considers the importance of the Scottish victory, primarily—but now not exclusively—in the sunshine in their persevered battlefield successes that forced England to recognize Scotland's re-emergence as a sovereign energy 14 years later.
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5 Perhaps some of them took a chance leading sessions without a well-established reputation, and certainly not all of these disputations would have met with the 2 Glorieux I. Glorieux II. , Les questions disputées. 5 This observation comes from Father Bataillon, who cites as examples the names of Ranulph of Houblonnière (†1288), John Lesage († after 1311) or Simon of Guiberville (†1320). I am very grateful to him for having drawn my attention to this. 3 theological QUAESTIONES QUODLIBETALES 19 same success, nor left their mark on the theological debates of the day.
Textes et études du moyen âge, 29) (Turnhout 2005). 55 Cf. Alexandri de Hales Summa theologica, vol. IV (Quaracchi 1948).
Epistolae Encyclicae, ed. J. Berthier (Rome 1889; reprint Torino 1956), cap. 3, Circa collationes, p. 260: “In hujusmodi autem theological QUAESTIONES QUODLIBETALES 23 delay between existing practices and regulations. 16 In these passages, one sees various components of the quodlibet emerging in the eﬀorts of the Friars Preacher to train young friars: 1) to preach convincingly, it was necessary to be well armed, so the exercises allowed advanced students to take on the role of respondens and opponens, as in disputed questions; 2) they authorized any participant whatsoever to add various other questions to the theological questions being discussed; 3) those who were not ready to play a more active role were given the opportunity to state and contrapose weighty auctoritates to arguments already presented, reciting them (recitari ) without having to comment on or interpret them;17 4) a ﬁnal element that is characteristic of quodlibeta appears in the chapter dedicated to disputationes: the Dominican Order admitted external participants to the debate sessions and could give the responsibility of being opponens or respondens to those who wanted it.