By Ramesh Chander Kuhad, Ajay Singh
Various varieties of secondary agriculture and forestry wastes signify priceless source fabrics for constructing exchange power as biofuels and different price additional items similar to sugars, phenols, furans, natural acids, enzymes and digestible animal feed and so forth. even though, if now not controlled appropriately, waste materials and environmental contaminants generated by means of a variety of industries reminiscent of nutrients and feed, pulp and paper and cloth could lead to serious environmental pollutants. The power, foodstuff and feed call for necessitate constructing uncomplicated and economically possible applied sciences for environmental administration and source restoration. Microorganisms and their enzymes give a contribution considerably in usage of plant residues, source restoration and finally in toxins mitigation.
“Biotechnology for Environmental administration and source restoration” offers a complete evaluate of chosen examine subject matters in a compendium of sixteen chapters concerning environmental toxins keep an eye on and constructing biotechnologies in agro-ecosystem administration and bioconversion of agro-residues (lignocellulosics) into biofuels, animal feed and paper and so forth. This e-book presents a precious source for reference and textual content fabric to graduate and postgraduate scholars, researchers, scientists operating within the quarter of microbiology, biotechnology, and environmental technology and engineering.
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Extra info for Biotechnology for Environmental Management and Resource Recovery
1990). Several LiP genes have been characterized from other fungal species, including four T. versicolor clones LPGI (Jonsson and Nyman 1992), LPGII (Jonsson and Nyman 1994), VLGI (Black and Reddy 1991), LPGVI, Bjerkandera adusta clone LPO-1, and Phlebia radiata lpg3 (Saloheimo et al. 1989). On the basis of Southern blot hybridization to the P. chrysosporium genes, LiP-like sequences also appear to be present in the genomes of Fomes lignosus (Huoponen et al. 1990), P. brevispora, and C. subvermispora (Rajakumar et al.
2009). Multiple sequence alignment reveals features that help to distinguish MnP and LiP; putative Mn2+-biding residues have been identified in MnP genes (Sundaramoorthy et al. 1994). Excluding T. versicolor, the MnP gene can be distinguished by the presence of 7–11 amino acid surface loop (Sundaramoorthy et al. 1994) and an extended terminus. The loop contains a fifth disulfide bond, which is not found in LiP genes. Heterologous gene expression of MnP and LiP genes has been reviewed by Pease and Tien (1992).
Have been tested for bioconversion of citrus bagasse and rice straw into animal feed. Out of four species of Pleurotus, P. ostreatus 814 was found to be efficient in improving the protein level (Albores et al. 2006), and a scale-up process, using rice straw bales in the open, is under progress. Thus, globally there are constant efforts to develop fastest method, where lignin is preferentially degraded without touching much of the cellulose. Such efficient method eventually will boost biopulping as well as animal feed production technologies.