By Ekow Eshun
'Where are you from?' 'No, the place are you actually from?' those questions, which he has been requested considering that boyhood, force Ekow Eshun to commute via Ghana looking for his roots, and lead him on an exploration of heritage and belonging, from slavery in Africa and the West to the current day and what it skill to be black. looking for solutions, Ekow reveals but extra questions, a few stunning contradictions and a few long-forgotten truths approximately his kinfolk past...
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Extra info for Black Gold of the Sun
Dias established himself as captain-general, or governor, in Luanda, with jurisdiction over an undeﬁned area between the Dande and Kwanza rivers. A few years after his arrival a century of almost constant warfare was initiated. The wars soon resolved themselves into slave-raiding campaigns, as Europeans demanded labour rather than tropical products in exchange for their merchandise, and African societies rapidly exhausted local supplies of war captives and criminals. Chiefs exchanged slaves for European ﬁrearms and luxury goods and secured further dependents with cheaply produced textiles and Brazilian alcohol.
Thus, the eighth war (1850–53) was the most drawn-out and costly of all. As in 1799, a simultaneous uprising of Khoisan/Coloured people at the Kat River settlement in the eastern Cape north of Fort Beaufort (established as a buffer for the colony in 1828) weakened the colonists’ position. In the end, it was not British arms or settler prowess that defeated the Xhosa but internal tensions resulting from the activities of white traders, missionaries, and settlers. These pressures were increased by the conﬁscation of Xhosa land and cattle, the apportionment after each war of captives as labour to settlers, the arrival of refugees from wars beyond their frontiers, and the expansion of commercial sheep farming, which was the most important sector of the Cape economy by the 1840s.
Changes in the Status of Africans In 1872 the Cape gained full responsible government. The colour-blind franchise was retained but came under increasing attack. As a strategy for incorporating the more prosperous black peasants and artisans, it had been supported by white merchants, professionals, and officials. With the annexation of African territories and the creation of a mass black working class, however, it proved vulnerable, and in 1887 and 1892 the franchise qualiﬁcations were changed in order to restrict the number of black voters.