British Geological Survey - Rock Classification Scheme Vol 1

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9 O3 52, 5 O2 O1 1 37 41 45 49 53 57 61 65 69 73 77 SiO2 wt% Figure 20 a. , 1986). Rocks falling on the shaded areas may be further subdivided as shown in the table underneath the diagram. The line drawn between the foidite field and the basanitetephrite field is dashed to indicate that further criteria must be used to separate these types. Abbreviations: q = normative quartz; ol = normative olivine. b. , 1986). The pairs of numbers are coordinates of the line intersections. 44 4 Na2O + K2O wt % basanite (TAS) tephrite (TAS) foidite (TAS) 3 andesite (TAS) basalticandesite basalt (TAS) picrobasalt 2 MgO > 18% picrite 1 boninite MgO > 8% & TiO2 < 0.

These, together with boninite, are 'high-Mg' rocks and therefore cannot be classified using TAS alone. 1 tephrite (TAS) mafite foiditic -rock foidite (TAS) picrite picritic-rock * komatiite meimechite picrobasalt Figure 17b Hierarchical classification of fine-grained normal crystalline rocks with TAS classification at levels 8 and 9. 41 Q Level 7 60 daciticrock rhyolitic-rock 20 65 andesiticrock trachytic-rock A basalticrock phonoliticrock P tephritic-rock 60 foiditicrock F Figure 18 QAPF field classification of fine-grained crystalline rocks (after Streckeisen, 1979).

004 (1/256) very–fine–grained M fine– ash–grains very–fine–crystalline D cryptocrystalline clay Figure 3 British Geological Survey grain size scheme. 29 level 4 level 5 level 6 level 7 HIERARCHICAL LEVEL consolidated volcaniclastic -conglomerate or breccia volcaniclasticsedimentary-rock volcaniclastic -sandstone volcaniclastic -mudstone VOLCANICLASTIC SEDIMENTARY ROCKS AND SEDIMENTS < 25% PYROCLASTIC FRAGMENTS unconsolidated volcaniclastic -gravel volcaniclastic -sediment volcaniclastic -sand volcaniclastic -mud consolidated tuffaceous -sedimentary-rock tuffaceousconglomerate or breccia tuffaceous -sandstone tuffaceous -mudstone VOLCANICLASTIC IGNEOUS ROCKS AND SEDIMENTS TUFFITES 25-75% PYROCLASTIC FRAGMENTS unconsolidated tuffaceousgravel tuffaceous -sediment tuffaceous -sand tuffaceous -mud agglomerate or pyroclasticbreccia consolidated pyroclastic -rock tuff-breccia lapillistone lapilli-tuff PYROCLASTIC ROCKS AND SEDIMENTS >75% PYROCLASTIC FRAGMENTS tuff block-/bombtephra unconsolidated pyroclastic-sediment (synonymous with 'tephra') ash-breccia lapilli-tephra lapilli-ash ash Figure 4 Hierarchical classification of volcaniclastic igneous rocks and sediments.

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